Caledon, Co Tyrone, Northern Ireland

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Parish of Aghaloo, County Tyrone

Office Copy of Draft Memoir by Lieutenant C. Bailey with Notes by Thomas Colby
(Circa 1835)
NATURAL FEATURES

Hills
The surface of this parish is very undulating. It consists 1 principally of small hills separated by valleys or plains. The hills are generally of the greatest altitude at the north west and become gradually of less elevation towards the south east. The following are the names of the townlands containing the principal elevations, with their altitudes in feet above the level of the sea: Rahaghy, 635 feet, Carricklongfield, 608 feet, Bohard, 479 feet, Glendarragh, 412 feet. The forgoing are in the north western portion and in the south eastern are Knockaginy, 251 feet, Drumess, 298 feet and Mullynaveagh, 258 feet.

Lakes
There are several lakes, within and bordering on this parish, the total area of which amounts to 140 acres 26 perches. Creeve Lough is about 1,000 yards long and 330 feet broad and extends over 60 acres, 9 acres of which are in Aghaloo parish. Mullycaman Lake is 440 yards by 286, area 48 acres. Rahaghy Lake contains 22 acres 2 roods.

Rivers
The Blackwater forms the boundary of the parish for 18 miles. For 12 miles its course is to the south east, to the southern extremity of the parish. At this point its direction changes to the south west towards Lough Neagh. There are various nameless watercourses which serve as feeders to the lakes and are useful to small mills.
[Crossed out: There is a fine spa well in Cavan Oneil townland which is much resorted to. It is strongly impregnated with sulphur and [? iron].

Bogs
The bog is principally confined to small patches in the valleys or low grounds. The largest tract is on the north western boundary in Carricklongfield, Rahaghy and Cronghill townlands.

MODERN TOPOGRAPHY

Towns: Caledon
Caledon is situated in the south eastern portion of the parish, on the high road from Monaghan to Dungannon. It is 89 miles from Dublin, [blank] from Monaghan and [blank] from Dungannon. The ancient name of the town was Kinnard. It was the site of a castle belonging to Sir Phelim O'Neill. The town consists of 1 street which presents a remarkably neat appearance. The public buildings are a church, a Presbyterian meeting house, a schoolhouse and an inn. There is a general market every Saturday, a grain market every Tuesday and a fair on the second Saturday in each month. A day coach from Belfast to Enniskillen passes through it every Sunday, Tuesday and Thursday and returns every Monday, Wednesday and Friday.

Public buildings: Roman Catholic chapel in Derrygooly.

Gentlemen's Seats
Lord Caledon's magnificent demesne is situated on the southern side of the town. The house is a fine building with a handsome front supported on pillars of the Ionic order. The terrace is spacious and the demesne is tastefully planted.

Crilly House, Annaghoe, Annagh, Limepark Lodge.

Bleach Greens, Manufactories and Mills
The flour mills at Caledon rank among the most extensive of the class in the kingdom. The water power is [supplied] by a weir across the Blackwater at right angles with the river. The height of the weir is [blank] feet and the length of the mill race [blank] yards, giving a fall of [blank] feet. There is also a subsidiary low pressure steam engine of 25 horsepower. The average consumption of coal is 4 cwt per hour. It is procured at [blank] for [blank] per ton and the cost of carriage is [blank].

The seeds or refuse of the grain is also used as fuel and it is found that 1 ton of seeds is equal to 4 cwt of coal.

Corn mill in Dyan, corn mill in Drummond.

Communications
The principal road is that from Monaghan to Dungannon through Caledon. It traverses the parish on the eastern side from north to south for 6 and a half miles.

Another main road traverses the parish from the south east to north west, leading from Armagh to Omagh through Aughnacloy. Its length within Aghaloo parish is 9 miles.

Productive Economy

Influence of Lord Caledon
[Insert note: Lord Caledon is sparing no expense in improvements here, and the flour mills which he has erected supply the country from Belfast to Lough Earne and nearly equal distances north and south. They sell about 250 pounds worth of flour per diem. Bailey is to get the dimensions of the water wheels. The subsidiary steam engine is 25 horsepower, low pressure. 'The agent told me they burned the seeds (refuse) to save coal for the engine and that 1 ton of seeds or 4 cwt of coal supplied the engine with fuel for an hour. Yours very truly, Thomas Colby].

Memoir, 1835

MEMOIR WRITING
Only moderate, refer to Mr Boyle, 24 September 1835. The heights of some of the principal points should be given [initialled] RX. Dawson.

Natural Features

Hills
The surface of the parish is extremely broken and irregular, consisting of a number of small hills but slightly connected with one another. It has a general fall on the east, south and south west to the banks of the Blackwater.

Lakes
Lough Enagh or Anagh, situated about half a mile to the north of the village of Caledon and partly in the town of Enagh, is a small lake about 16 acres in extent. The peasantry suppose it to be 20 fathom in depth. They say that on a late occasion when it was frozen over, an opening was made in the centre of the ice through which they endeavoured in vain to sound it. This was most probably owing to their not having a rope sufficiently long, as it is not likely from the nature of the surrounding ground that the lake has any extraordinary depth. It is 104 feet above the level of the sea. It contains perch, roach, pike and eels.

Creve Lough, situated near the centre of the parish, comprises about 45 acres. It is said to be very deep on the north eastern side. It has no islands on it. It is about 200 feet above the sea. It contains pike and eels in considerable quantities.

Rivers
The Blackwater, running in a south easterly direction, forms the south western boundary of the parish for about 7 miles and then, changing its direction and running nearly north, it forms the eastern or south eastern boundary for 5 and a half miles. Its average breadth is 80 feet and its average depth 8 [feet]. It rises in the parish of Clogher. It cannot be well applied to machinery as its average fall is not more than 4 or 5 feet in a mile. It is more usefully situated for drainage. There are no falls or rapids on it. It used to overflow considerably in wet weather and do great damage by washing away the soil and crops. This, however' is now prevented in all ordinary cases by a dike which has been constructed by the Earl of Caledon along its banks. It impedes communication. Its bed is soft and earthy and its banks fertile and hilly.

The parish is very well supplied with water from rivulets and springs. There are no mineral or hot springs in it.

Bogs
There is no bog of any great size in the parish but a number of patches varying in extent from 8 to 30 acres whose average depth may be stated as 6 feet. Their height above the sea varies from 100 to 200 feet. Their most remarkable feature is a total absence of timber, with the exception of a few small fragments of fir scattered through some of

Woods
There are no natural woods in the parish. The planting in Caledon demesne is extensive and varied. There are no evidence of natural woods having existed.

Climate
Wheat is generally sown in October and barley, oats and potatoes in April or May. The harvest is mostly in September. Potatoes are dug in the end of October.

MODERN TOPOGRAPHY

Towns: Caledon
The village of Caledon is situated near the southem extremity of the parish and on the westem bank of the Blackwater, within 67 miles (Irish) of Dublin. It is about 1,300 feet in length. Its general appearance is peculiarly neat, owing to the style of its houses. The predominance of slated roofs and the regularity of its masonry gives it, from some points, the appearance rather of a portion of a large town than the entire of a village.

Buildings and Streets
The church, situated close to the village, is a neat building. The date of its erection and its cost are unknown. The congregation is about 600 and the average attendance 200. It is about 102 feet in length. Its sides are irregular but the breadth of the principal part is 33 feet. It is capable of accommodating 500 or 600. Some additions and improvements were made to it about the year 1828. It is only a chapel of ease, the parish church being at Aughnacloy.

The Seceding Presbyterian meeting house is situated close to the village. It is 48 feet in length and 25 feet in breadth. It is capable of accommodating about 300. It was built in the year 1824 at a cost of 300 pounds, which was defrayed by its congregation.

[Insert note by Dawson: "about 600”, "about 102", “500 or 600”, "about the year 1828": we should endeavour to give precise information in every case].

The Wesleyan Methodist chapel is a small neat building measuring 40 feet by 22 and capable of accommodating about 200 persons. It was built in 1834 at a cost of 108 pounds, 50 pounds of which was defrayed by its congregation, the remainder by the Earl of Caledon.

The court house is a neat and substantial building. It was erected for the purpose for which it is used, together with the dispensary and inn which may be said to constitute 1 building, by the Earl of Caledon at a cost of 3,000 pounds, about the year 1822.

There is a neat barrack in the village which measures 135 feet in front. A sergeant major, 16 sergeants and 8 men of the militia are stationed at it.

There is an excellent inn and post house in the village.

Schools: see table.

General Appearance of Caledon
The village consists principally of 1 street about 1,300.feet in length and 55 in breadth, which has a pleasing and regular appearance owing to its cleanliness and the peculiar neatness of its houses, some of which are built in a very ornamental style, having projecting roofs with hanging fringes of wood at the eaves. There are 120 houses in the village, of which 100 are slated and the remainder thatched. 2 are 3 storeys high, about 100 2 [storeys] and the remainder 1 [storey]. The houses are all built of stone and very few of them whitewashed. The village is in a state of improvement.

SOCIAL ECONOMY

Local Government
There are 8 magistrates in the parish. Petty sessions are held in the court house once a week. There is a court leet held once a year and a manor court once a month.

General Economy
Such of the people as are not engaged in the trifling traffic of the town or as mechanics employ themselves in agricultural pursuits. There is a news room in the town where Belfast and Dublin papers are taken. Markets are held every Saturday and fairs on the second Saturday of every month. No houses are insured from fire.

Dispensary
The dispensary is supported half by subscription from the people and half by the grand jury. Its beneficial effects on the comforts and health of the poorer classes are evident.

For schools, see those mentioned in the table as in the townland of Caledon.

Poor and Amusements
There is no public provision for the poor, but the Earl of Caledon has the sum of 3 pounds 16s 3d distributed among them every Saturday and at Christmas 80 pounds worth of clothes is given to them by him besides a quantity of money.

The people do not appear to be very fond of amusements of any kind or remarkably hospitable. The village is, and has been, improving for some time through the highly praiseworthy exertions of the Earl of Caledon, who derives his title from it.

Dyan Village
Dyan is a collection of about 30 houses on the road from Caledon to Dungannon, 9 miles from the latter. They are almost all thatched and with the exception of 4 or 5 have but 1 storey. There is a public house and a grocer's in it. It has a scattered and insignificant appearance and scarcely deserves the name of a hamlet.

Public Buildings
There is a Roman Catholic chapel in the townland of Derrygooley. Its shape and dimensions are: [ground plan, main dimensions 66 by 47 feet, "T" shape]. It is partly thatched and partly slated. It is surrounded with hawthorn and has a rustic appearance. It accommodates about 600 persons. It was built about the year 1805 and considerably enlarged about 1823. It stands upon a fort, upon which the congregation used to assemble previous to its erection.

There is a Presbyterian meeting house in the townland of Lismulladown. Its shape and dimensions are: [ground plan, main dimensions 66 by 52 feet, "T" shape]. It is capable of accommodating about 400. The building of it was commenced in the year 183 1 but it is still in an unfinished state for want of funds. The expenses of erection are defrayed by subscriptions from the congregation. The Earl of Caledon contributed 50 pounds, [insert addition: James Collins 50 pounds 7s 5d]. It is a very neat, regular and substantial building.

[Insert addition: Presbyterian, Wesleyan, hospital]

Gentlemen's Seats
Caledon House, the residence of the Earl of Caledon, is situated near the southern extremity of the parish, on an elevated position close to the Blackwater and about a mile from the village of Caledon. The date of its erection is unknown. Considerable improvements are at present being made to it. It is a large and splendid house. The demesne occupies 700 or 800 acres. There is a very fine garden in it and an extensive library in the house.

Table of Mills
[Table gives townland, diameter and breadth of wheel, type of wheel, type of mill].

Dyan, 16 feet by 14 feet, breast wheel, corn mill.

Drummond, 14 feet by 2 feet 2 inches, undershot wheel, corn mill.

Caledon, 18 feet by 18 feet, breast wheel, flour mill; 18 feet by 18 feet, undershot wheel, flour mill.

Communications
The main road from Caledon to Dungannon passes through the parish for about 4 miles. Its average breadth is 35 feet. It was made and is kept in very good repair by the barony. It is tolerably well laid out, considering the irregularities of the ground.

The road from Caledon to Aughnacloy runs through the parish for about 7 miles. Its average breadth is 35 feet. It was made and is repaired by, the barony. It is tolerably well laid out and kept in very good order.

The road from Caledon to Glaslough and Monaghan passes through the parish for about 2 miles. Its average breadth is 30 feet. It was made by the barony with the exception of about half a mile close to Caledon, which was made at the expense of the Earl of Caledon. It is kept in very good repair but not judiciously laid out.

The road from Caledon to Carnteel passes through the parish for about 6 and a half miles. Its average breadth is 28 feet. It was made and is kept in good repair by the barony. It is tolerably well laid out.

Cross and by roads are not at all numerous. They are kept in very good repair.

General Appearance
The character of the grounds (which consist of an endless succession of small hills), while it gives us a number of individual spots which may be termed picturesque, makes a general appearance of the parish tiresome and monotonous. The want of wood is striking. The ground, however, is well cultivated and the cottages have generally a tolerably neat exterior.

SOCIAL ECONOMY

Early Improvements
The exertions of the Earl of Caledon appear to form the most striking cause of improvement in the parish, which has recently been very considerable.

Obstructions to improvement: none.

Local Government
There are 8 magistrates in the parish, not stipendiary. Their residences are within convenient distances and they are firm and respected by the people. The usual force of police is a sergeant and 3 men. Manor courts, courts leet and petty sessions are held in Caledon, see Caledon. The number of magistrates in attendance varies from 2 to 5. The number of outrages committed in the parish has decreased greatly recently and that people are now extremely peaceable and honest. Illicit distillation is not carried on. Property is not insured.

Dispensaries: see town of Caledon.

Schools
[Table contains the following headings: townland, number of pupils subdivided by religion and sex, how supported, date established].

Mullaghmore East, 101 Protestants, 6 Catholics, 72 males, 35 females, total 107; the Earl of Caledon contributes 5 pounds and the Reverend Mr McCreight 1 pound Is per year, parents subscribe from I d to 3d per week; not known when established.

Corlough, 42 Catholics, 74 males, 35 females, total 109; established 17 June 1816.

Ramaket, 78 Protestants, 142 Catholics, 131 males, 89 females, total 220; Earl of Caledon contributes 5 pounds and Mr McCreight 2 pounds 2s per year, parents pay from 1 s to 5 s per quarter; established 1815.

Mulnaborn, 30 Protestants, 18 males, 12 females, total 30; Earl of Caledon contributes 5 pounds and Mr McCreight 1 pound Is per year, parents contribute from Is Id to 10s 6d per quarter, established 1833.

Mullycarnon, 115 Protestants, 48 Catholics, total 163; Earl of Caledon contributes 5 pounds and Mr McCreight 1 pound per year, parents subscribe 1 d per week.

Caledon Demesne, 20 Protestants, 20 Catholics, 40 females; supported entirely by Lady Caledon, established 1829.

Habits of the People
The cottages are almost all built of mud and thatched. Glass windows are universally used. Very few of the houses are more than 1 storey high and the number of rooms varies from 2 to 5. The cottages are generally whitewashed and have a tolerable exterior. The insides are in many cases unclean and uncomfortable. Some which are near Lord Caledon's demesne are extremely neat and ornamental. The food of people for the greater part of the year is principally potatoes; oatmeal is also much used. Their dress is extremely irregular and exhibits a remarkable contempt for appearances. The most striking peculiarity in it is that old regimental coats are frequently worn.

Persons of 93, 94 and 97 years of age have recently died in the parish and the people in general live to a good age. There are no instances of marriages before 18. Amusement does not appear to be much sought after in the parish. As usual, dancing forms the principal.

Emigration
Emigration to America used formerly to prevail to a great extent. It has decreased considerably of late.

Remarkable events: none.

SOURCE: ORDNANCE SURVEY MEMOIRS






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